Category Archives: My Own Piano Sonatas

Working videos leading to a “DADT III” short film

Here are my first cuts at a “Unified DADT Video” started March 4.

They will address the question of moral compass from the perspective of someone who is different, and will track to the introduction and first three chapters of my DADT-III book (2014), more perspective. There is more background here.

This content will change with time.

Video 1

Video 2

Video 3

Video 4 (workshop and backyard baseball)

Here is the template for Part 1, pretty much along the lines of Chapter 1 of the DADT III book.

(Posted: Friday, May 12, 2017 at 2:30 PM EDT)

A barren start, perhaps, to producing my 1960 Sonata

I tried a little experiment tonight.  I tried filming myself performing the “Big Tune” in the Picardy D Major at the conclusion (two pages before the end) of my 1960 Piano Sonata #2, from the original manuscript.

It’s pretty crude, and my brain knows the score better than my arms and fingers do.  OK, it could use a virtuoso pianist.

The piano sound is not as good recorded on a camera as it is right from Sibelius when played from a digital MPG file.

Indeed, I wrote all this out by hand on the kitchen table, a lot of it o snow days in March 1960, my junior year in high school, before entering it in a composition contest.

This is definitely a “work in progress”.


Also, note, grownups play with toy cement trucks.



(Posted: Thursday, March 30, 2017 at 8:45 PM EDT)

My 1960 Sonata #2 in D Minor, more notes as to making it playable

I want to make some remarks about progress with my Piano Sonata #2 in D Minor, composed in the early part of 1960 when I was a junior in high school and submitted by the “Arlington Junior Music Club”. I believe I wrote a lot of the manuscript out in black ink on snow days in March 1960 (the “three white Wednesdays), seated at a kitchen table, where I also handwrote term papers.

The work, described in an earlier posting here Jan. 27, 2016,  mixes some perfunctory “neoclassicism” with “storm and stress” and violent outburst and then triumph near the end.  It would run about 28 minutes (taking first movement repeat). The style is a simplification of the “rhetoric” in D Minor piano concertos by Brahms, Rachmaninoff, and especially Anton Rubenstein (#4), as well as the C# Minor piano concerto by Amy Beach (which really needs to be played a lot more). And I think there is a little influence even from the Beethoven Piano Sonata #17 in D Minor, the “Tempest” (probably invoking Shakespeare’s play).

.I think the work would be a cloud pleaser with a virtuoso pianist who likes “romantic style”. Very little new music (really zero) in this genre get commissioned these days.  There is a sense of balance and gathering momentum and striving toward big climaxes.

But a lot of the harmonic mannerisms sound trite to me today, in spots.  In the first movement, toward the end of the Development, starting on p. 5, there is a lot of repetitious virtuoso rhetoric centered on the dominant A Major, which could make the listener feel that piece is supposed to be centered around the tonality of A rather than D.  The same buildup occurs in the introduction to the Finale, on p. 17, and then one more time (‘Nsync indeed – imagine Justin Timberlake as the concert pianist) on p. 23, as after the final presentation of the main toccata theme and the sonata prepares for the return of the second theme as a Rachmaninoff-style “big tune” in D Major.

There is also an issue with the toccata theme that opens the Rondo, in that the first stanza migrates to dominant A Minor quickly and stays there too long.

I sketched out some proposed revisions in Sibelius.

File Son2Ch1 suggests a richer harmonization that could apply around line 3 of p. 5 and similar places on pages 17 and 23.  The experimentation could be extended.

File Son2Ch2 suggests a treatment of the toccata theme that opens the Finale by varying away from the respondent dominant A minor to other tonalities (p. 18 with a dal segno, and then p. 22).

Son2CngIntro suggests some more harmonic flavor for the opening four measures of Adagio for the first movement.

Son2ChgCodas suggests ways to make the passage work more harmonically varied as the final climaxes at the end of the first movement and finale approach.

In general, the use of higher interval dissonant chords based on the subdominant is more effective in preparing a final pedal point, and is overuse of the dominant.  Look at the great climaxes in Bruckner, or at the end of Scriabin’s Divine Poem.

I do have the original handwritten 1960 manuscript, which could be copied and pasted over manually.  I do have the PDF online (see Jam 27, 2016 posting) and physical copies.

(Posted: Tuesday, March 21, 2017 at 11:45 PM EDT)

A little more work on my Sonata 3

I’ve made some modifications to the score set of Piano Sonata 3.

The coda to the finale has been expanded.

Referring back to the post on Jan. 28, 2016:

Between 4.10 and 4.11, there is an element 4.10a (file name “Sonata4Mov4Coda1suf”) that further prepares the final C Major pedal point by going back to a soft misterioso, 11 measures, very chromatic, in the tonalities of F minor and D minor, using earlier motives, and quoting a phrase in a piano piece played by a friend about 4 years ago,  The harmonies build toward the “Bruckner pivot” on the subdominant (with seventh and ninth chords).

The final pedal point start with the pivot, of different lengths in different voices, as the music blasts away, combining many toccata-like motives from the earlier movements, along with two motives from Bruckner (the seventh and eighth symphonies), before crashing down (always FFF) on a final interval of a major third, with which the second subject (the “Applause theme”) had started. Admittedly, this would probably sound a bit like Shostakovich if orchestrated (with lots of brass and drums in the closing measures).  The final C Major chord, FFF, is staccato, allowed to reverberate.

There is also a passage, D3prep (in E Major, so to speak), that would fit as 3.75, before the reharmonization of the “religioso” in the slow movement, (D3), before the conclusion of the slow movement (E-flat minor).

(Posted: Friday, February 3, 2017 at 12: 15 AM EST)

A Note: When has “my music” really been performed in public or private?


For the record, I thought I would make a note of when any of my own music compositions have been performed publicly.

The little Minuet in E, many times around 1959 as it won a prize.

The Sonata in A (15 minutes, 1958) and much bigger Sonata in D Minor (1960)  I think I performed these before an audience at my second music teacher’s home in the late spring of 1960.  I played the slow movement other times.  I had more technique then, and could actually pull this one off (even the finale).

I would play them in a piano room at Ewell Hall at William and Mary in the fall of 1961,  The friend liked the little one, and claims he played it by ear before an audience in Pasadena, CA before an audience over Christmas 1961.  He loved the “scale theme” in the first movement.

There may be something to this.  During the Tribeca Film Festival in NYC in 2012, the festive A Minor music played before the shows sounded so much like the finale (Presto, A Minor) of my little Sonata, arranged for strings.  Maybe the music stuck in someone’s mind over the decades.

I would play one other piece, “Bubbling Brook”, at the Morris County GAA in Morristown NJ before an audience at a talent show in the fall of 1973.

All of this is a long way from Poisson Rouge or the 930 Club.  But I bring slowly make the shorter pieces into fully publishable form.  But self-teaching of Sibelius takes time.

(Published: Thursday, March 24, 2016 at 11:45 PM EDT)

My Piano Sonata 3, manuscript notes


I’ve written about my Piano Sonata #3 in C here before, but today I want to provide a detailed and “definitive” reference – which may get updated from time to time.


I began to compose the work in December 1961, right after my William and Mary Expulsion, at age 18-1/2, shortly before starting at George Washington University while “living at home”.  I wrote in rag-tag small composition notebooks available to me at the time.  Since this wasn’t getting entered anywhere, I wasn’t particularly attentive to legibility.  But I actually composed the first two movements pretty quickly, and was ready for the slow movement by March.  (The “chum” from William and Mary visited me at the end of January and saw what the first movement would be like.)   Then schoolwork slowed me down.  I left aside until the spring of 1974, when I was living in the Rivercrest Apartments in Piscataway, NJ.  Having returned from spending most of the winter on a benchmark for Univac in Minnesota, I finished the slow movement, and sketched out a Finale, on regular staff paper.  By September I had moved into New York City, started working for NBC, was socially involved with the Ninth Street Center, and had pretty much laid it aside. I was 31 then.


The First Movement (16 min.) starts with an ambiguous introduction “Molto Moderato” and then precedes to the Exposition “Allegro Moderato” (Qr at 160), 4/4, a neoclassical little invention in C.  Passage to the second theme in A Minor, also playful, is immediate.  (The only well-established classical sonata movement in a major key with second theme in relative minor that I know of is Brahms’s First Piano Trio in B.)   The second theme slows down for a moment with a Lydian mode motif that had occurred to me in English class in 10th Grade when we were studying short stories, and stayed in mind forever.  The exposition is repeated (w/o the intro).  The development is marked “Adagio” at the start and a lot of it is in slow tempo.  (The major classical work that does something like this is the first movement of Mahler’s Seventh Symphony, in e minor, which I got a recording of – Scherchen’s on Westminster – some time in 1962.)  The music becomes detached, schizoid, and then goes into a twelve-tone fugato. The music tries to gather steam and disintegrates into cadenzas before getting some momentum again and building up to a romantic climax to start the Recapitulation, which states the first theme in grandiose chords but in E-fat Minor.  The second theme will come back transformed in C, and be almost “Brhamsian”.  The movement slows down and slips into minor and ends very quietly, in meditation.  A sustained quiet ending for this movement is mandatory for the whole concept to work.


The Second Movement (11 min.), in A-flat, is the Scherzo, 3 /4, at qr of 198.  The marking is “Allegro Moderato” but the sensation is that of speed, so “Vivace” would be more appropriate.  The pianist should play this opening fast and with virtuosity.  (It doesn’t lumber, like Bruckner.)  There are a lot of passages with octaves in eighth notes at high speed. The first Trio, in F Major, Moderato, in varying compound time signatures (like 9/4, 6/4) is a crude mockery of a march that comes back three times.  The trio is a mini-rondo itself as it is broken up by cadenza-like passages (in bizarre meters like 2/8).  The first part of the “exposition” in A-flat returns, to go to a second trio, which is a satirical waltz in C# Minor, which then pixilates. Finally, the “exposition” concludes in A-flat, and ends with one little flourish, FF, in the extreme registers of the piano.


The Third Movement (11 min.) is the Slow Movement or “Elegy”, and it starts with a 12-tone row, but “harmonized” in E-flat minor (a key used in the first movement to start the recapitulation).  There follows a main theme, a kind of dirge in F# minor, 12 /8, which had come to me when my father was recuperating from his minor heart attack over anxiety over my expulsion (it had happened to him around Feb. 15 when he was on business in Williamsburg, ironically;  he had driven home and was hospitalized briefly; he was told he had smoked his last cigarette).  Father often complained about loud music from the basement, so I tried with this theme to see what could be done “quietly”, but rather mesto.  There follows an etude-like episode in B-flat minor, 8 / 8 (odd measures), and then the F# Minor mesto returns as a grander theme, now often FF, on three staves.  I then move to a “middle section”, a Largo Religioso in B Major, which is rather like a highly chromatic hymn tune without words.  (Or, so to speak, “Words Fail”).  This section can be played in a self-contained manner (I’ve tried it on an organ and it works!).  Finally, a long development section starts, Grave, 3/4, with the twelve-tone row.  Going into some arpeggio-like passage work, it picks up momentum, and comes to an unresolved dissonance as a climax.  Here I recently added another passage of development, starting to recapitulate other composers.  Building on the Religioso theme (now in E Major), the tonality comes apart, as the “octave theme” from the Bruckner Ninth is overlaid upon it, and then the motto of Scriabin’s Black Mass appears, but in reverse (trying to rise up).  All this comes collects into one more unresolvable dissonance.  Finally, the opening tone row is played backwards, in E-flat minor again, and the movement ends quietly on a couple staccato minor chords, back in desolation.


Finale (12 min):  It starts in C, Andante 2 /4, and then quickly a fugato, Allegretto, 6 /8, and some other meters (even 7 /8).  I’ve outlined the structure in detail in my January 15, 2016 post.  There is a major “hymn-like” second subject in F# Major (with a lot of modulation and dissonance), then more development, which gradually brings in external music, and then a cadenza, all “crashing” to dissonance before the F# Major theme returns, and then fights being dragged back to C Major.  The triumphant end, in C, plays a lot of earlier material polyphonically over the final chords, that finally end in a “drumbeat” and one final shout, FFF.


My NIH notes (from my late 1962 stay as an inpatient) say that I “began to compose a series of piano sonatas based on a 12 tone scale. These were compositions that he did not hear in his head but rather worked out as a prearranged formula.”  Not very complementary, and not exactly correct.


Below I will diagram how I performed the work at home recently.  It took me, with my level of technique, about 67 minutes to get through it.  A good pianist would perform it in about 50 minutes, with 15-second pauses between movements.  That’s long for a piano sonata.  I can perform the first movement better than the rest of the work (and make it convincing), but I’m quite confident that the concepts work if well executed.


In the chart, a “c” means I played from iTunes, a “p” means that I played on the Casio.

The handwritten score pdf is in the same link as the previous day’s post (on the legacy site).  There is one URL for each movement, such as this for the first movement.   More instructions on the location of the physical booklet are forthcoming.


4.9Coda 1 stanaz F#71Sonata3Mov4cadcends in dissonance

Mov-seq desc page file played comment
1.1 Moderato,C 1 na p Introduction
1.2 Allegro,C 2 Sonata3Mov1E1 p Exp, first theme
1.3 Scherzando,a 3 SonataMov1E2, E2a,b p 2nd thm,Ossia avl; take repeat
1.4 adagio 4 SonataMov1D1 p Development, 1st 2 pages
1.5 Atonal 6 Sonata3M1D2,D2a (ossia) p 2 pages
1.6 Grave, cadenzas 8 Sonata3M1D3 p
1.7 allegro 10 Sonata3M1D4 p pick up speed
1.8 Allegro Maestoso,ebmn 14 Sonata3Mov1Ra p Recapitulation
1.9 transition 15 Sonata3movR2 ossia p
1.10 transition cont 16 Sonata3MovR3 p climax
1.11 2nd theme, C 17 Sonata3MovR4 p
1.12 Coda starts 19 Sonata3Mov1RC p Coda starts;
1.13 Tranquillo 20 Sonata3Mov1R5 p
1.14 Coda ends 22 Sonata3Mov1Rc1 p Movement ends quietly in minor
2.1 Scherzo, Vivace, Ab 23 Sonata3Mov2E1 c
2.2 Scherzo, cont 25 Sonata2Mov2R2 c
2.3 Trio 1, F 31 Sonata3Mov2R3 p long trio, only a little in Sib;
2.4 Reprise 1 42 na brief
2.5 Trio 2, c# mn 42 na play this w cadenzas
2.6 Reprise 45 na conclusion
3.1 Elegy, eb min 49 Sonata3Mov3I1 p
3.2 lamntation f# 50 Sonata3Mov3E1 p father’s theme
3.3 8/8 b-f min 51 Sonata3MovE2 p
3.4 lamentation f# in octaves 53 Sonata3MovE3-1a
3.5 Religioso B 55 Sonata3Mov3Religioso c chorale
3.6 Grave molto, atonal 57 Son3Mov3D1 c
3.7 accel 61 Sonata3Mov3D2 c,p much was played manually
3.8 extra material 61f Sonata3MovD3 c comes to a dissonance
3.9 coda, palindrome 62 Sonata3Mov3Coda p
4.1 Andante 2/4; Allegretto 6/8 63 MSonata3FinaleS1 c
4.2 Andante 65 MSonata3Finale1 – 2, after playing at 65A p,c
4.3 Mahler 5 theme 67 Sonata3Mov4E2a c
4.4 intermed develop 67f Sonata3Mov4E3a c
4.5 F#Maj hymn 68 HoldApplauseTheme p
4.6 Devel 1 with external minuet 68 Sonata3Mov4E5a c I probably should call this D5a
4.7 Dev 2 with external songs 69 Sonata3Mov4E5b c D5b
4.8 Cadenza, external materials 70 Sonata3Mov4cad c ends in dissonance
4.10 Coda 1 Stanzas go to F Min 72 Su702CfromF#c 17 measures p
4.11 Coda 2 Modulate to C, stay in C 72 Sonata3Mov4Coda2 p end FFF


(Published: Thursday, Jan. 28, 2016 at 9:30 PM ESR)

Update: Thursday, Dec. 22, 2016

I found this printout of some alternate music (6/4) for the final coda in the Finale.  Don’t recall the file number.  I need to work it in.

My Piano Sonatas 1 and 2: Notes on manuscript sources


One of my ongoing efforts is to document the music I have composed, party with the idea that if something happened to me (at 72), someone could discern my intentions and some of it might get professionally performed.


Note that the “file names” that I give are the names of PDF’s (and sometimes MP3 files) on which I have save them.  They will all be available on the Safe Deposit Backup USB (to be described soon).  Otherwise, they are available in the “Scores” directories of my Windows 8 and above computers, and my most recent MacBook (and backed up by Carbonite).


I have composed (or sketched in detail) three Piano Sonatas, and I want to leave some notes now.


The Piano Sonata #1 in A Major is a neoclassical affair.  I believe it was composed and written out by hand when I was 13, in early 1956.  A chum at William and Mary claims to have memorized it by ear and played it in California over Christmas in 1961, shortly after my William and Mary expulsion.  A complete performance should take about 16 minutes.  The files are all named Son1M1.pdf through M4 (and were recorded from Sibelius in 2013;  sib files exist that can convert to mp3).


First Movement: Allegro, 2/4.  The first theme is based on a perfunctory ascending and descending scale that the chum liked. The second theme makes heavy use triplets.   5 min with repeat.


Second Movement: Adagio, 4/4, A Minor, a funeral march with a very symmetric theme.  4 minutes.


Third Movement: Minuetto (A Major), and Trio (D Major).  This movement has some bite, and I like more than my little E Major Minuet that won a composition contest in 1957.   3 minutes.


Finale:  Presto, Tarentella, 6/8, A Minor.  A very symmetric piece. It stays in minor (no happy ending).  Some music very similar to this was played in the pre-show of the Tribeca Film Festival in 2012.  I wonder if it really did stick in somebody’s mind at William and Mary in 1961. 3 Minutes.


The Piano Sonata #2 in D Minor is much more ambitious.  It is hype-rromantic.  I was impressed by works like Brahms First Piano Concerto, and Concertos 2 and 3 by Rachmaninoff.  There is a tendency for the music to sit in the rhetorical dominant too much (Rachmaninoff’s Third Concerto tends to do that but is still a masterpiece), but that could be revised.  I think the piece, if performed by a virtuoso perfmance, would work.  A complete performance should take about 28 minutes.   The file name is MUSSonata2.  It is a PDF of the handwritten copy (27 pages)


I believe I handwrote the score on the kitchen table in the late winter of 1960, im 11th grade, when I was 16, particularly on some snow days (we had three big March storms that year – “three White Wednesdays”).  The manuscript had to be written neatly in black ink, and the process was tedious, rather like doing a biology lab “draw and label”.  I entered it into a composition contest and have shown a couple of the feedback letters.  (One grader suggested study of Bloch, Bartok, and Kabalevsky!   Bartok I would respect!)  I have tried manipulating the manuscript pages on the iPad.


First Movement:  The exposition starts with a brief slow introduction (which can be repeated) and then moves to an Allegro Commodo, 3 /4 (a quarter note at 168). The opening theme sounds symmetric and contrapuntal, and migrates to F Major for the Minuet-like second subject (Qr at 144). The development is stormy (I was influenced by the cadenza of Rachmaninoff’s Third Concerto) . The Recapitulation is pretty straightforward with the second subject in D. Then there is a brief cadenza and a violent close, FFF, crashing on D Minor chords.


Second Movement: G Major, Lento Placido, Qr at 52, 4 /4.   It is a simple sonatina form with two subjects, the second in D Major.  After a short development, there is a cadenza requiring “leggerio”. The second theme returns as a singable chorale-like hymn, before ending quietly.


Finale:  It starts with an introduction, a cadenza to migrate from G Minor back to D Minor, but it is so extensive as to almost constitute a separate movement (in place of a “scherzo”).  A Rondo follows, in 2/2 (accidentally left out), with a toccata theme in triplets.  The second subject in 6/8 is more lyrical, and will appear in B-flat and G Minor before the chromatic “refrain” part of this subject returns at the end as a “big tune” D Major triumph, leading to a rush to a wild, joyful close.


The manuscript has hand indications of other chord formations for some passages to reduce the dependence on the dominant key (A Major v. D Major).  But well performed, it might not be necessary.


I believe I performed the D Minor before my second piano teacher’s class in her home in Arlington in the Spring of 1960.  I believe I played them for a friend om Ewell Hall at William and Mary (in the practice rooms) in the fall of 1961.

All these links are available here.

(Published: Wednesday, January 27, 2016, at 9 PM EST.)


Update: Monday, April 25, 2016  (about 6:30 PM EDT) 

Saturday night, I stumbled through playing the complete Sonata #2 on my Casio.  It took about 35 minutes.  It shocks me that I was able to play this at age 16 as a junior in high school, and recognize how much skill I lost.

The piece is surprisingly effective, and would work, at least as a “curiosity”, if performed by a virtuoso pianist.  The style at first glance seems perfunctory, built on neoclassical mannerisms all the way back to Scarlatti. But in the development section, on p. 5, the music becomes stormy, and then violent at the end of the first movement, and gradually triumphant in the finale.  The “big tune” in the finale has a lot more harmonic modulation than the other materials.

The “sturm und drang” process on p. 5 returns in the “Introduction” to the finale (which is almost a separate “scherzo” movement, however abbreviated), and then again in the Finale before the final appearance of the “big tune” in the Picardy D Major.

When I play this passage by itself, it seems trite, with the “dominant of the dominant” effect, as if the basic tonality were A major.  My ear was somewhat influenced by the massive cadenza in the first movement of the Rachmaninoff Third Piano Concerto, but not as sophisticated. But there is also some similarity to material toward the end of the long first movement of the Piano Concerto in C# Minor by Amy Beach (1896), which after being laid back turns violent as the movement closes.  The passage does not sound as harmonically “trite” when played in context, but I think the two reappearances need to more harmonic ventures, especially using the “Beach chord” using the sixth interval (so effective in the finale of the Beach concerto).  Also, the opening theme of the first movement mixes the interval of the fourth with the minor second (something Scriabin developed in his “Black Mass”, Sonata 9). That could provide material for harmonic enrichment.  One of Alma Mahler’s songs (in D Minor) has a harmonic progression that seems also relevant.  But simply changing keys by measure (as suggested in the handwritten notes on the copy) would not be effective.

I will develop a plan, detailed in a blog posting later, identifying pages and measures, of how to make the changes, especially to the recurring “Development Section” passages when they are repeated.  I’ll probably make some files of rewritten passages on Sibelius and post them.  It’s not practical right now to rewrite the entire manuscript in Sibelius until there is more “help”/

I note also that the opening theme in the slow movement resembles the Andantino theme of Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto #1, although I use G Major and 4/4 time (a tritone away from D-flat in the Tchaikovsky).


Finale of my Sonata 3 (1962, 1974), progress report


I have revised the template to the Finale of my Sonata 3 in Sibelius 7.5 on my MacBook, so I want to record a note about what I have.

All of the file names below are what I have saved the various
“pieces” of the Finale as.  In time, I may publish more of the pdf’s for these (or even mpg’s).  But I wanted to take a checkpoint on where this work is.

The best sequence right now is:

MSonata3FinaleA1   Opening toccata   (C, Allegretto, 2/4 and then mostly 6/8, fugato-style

MSonata3Finale2   Transition, a little slower

MSonata3Finale3   Transition continues, antiphonal episode

Sonata3Mov4E2a   Reprise of toccata returns, C Major, 6/8

Sonata3Mov4E3a   Meno Mosso, 3/4, transition to major hymn episode

HoldApplauseHymn,  F# Major, 4/4 and 6/4, Andante, like a hymn but very chromatic, major “middle section” episode’

Sonata3Mov4E5a   3/8  “Development”.  Fugato theme starts getting mixed with material from my “short pieces” (Nov. 25, 2015 post) mostly the minuet theme centered around E. Comes to a dissonance

Sonata 3Mov4E5b  4/4  Development continues.  “Song themes” from later work try to slow the movement down.  A few motifs from Beethoven (Sonata 1 Minuet) and Scriabin (Black Mass) are briefly quoted in counterpoint.  The music struggles (becoming atonal) to maintain momentum, and comes to a crashing unresolved dissonance, as it tries to connect the music of this Sonata with that of other composers


Piano cadenza, largely atonal, emphasizing fugato themes in fast tempo, leggerio, bringing in themes from the first movement, showing them related.  The Bruckner 9th descending octave theme is quoted once.

Sonata4Mov4Coda1 and then Coda2 (“Coda of the Coda”)

The F# Major Hymn tune returns, Maestoso, FF.  Although the music is hymn-like and laid out the way the phrases of a hymn verse might be, the music has to get back to the key of C.  It goes to D#Minor, E-flat major, C Major, A Minor, A Major, D Major, then acts like it will end quietly in F.  But that is a ruse to move to the Final C, using the “Bruckner Modulation” at the end of the 8th Symphony. Finally, the descending thirds of the hymn tune ring out, as a rising theme (from the Bruckner 7th and scherzo from the 8th underneath, with motives from this Sonata played in rapid notes in the high treble) plays in the base, leading to the finally FFF chords and octaves in C, Maestoso.

(Published: Friday, Jan. 15, 2016, 4:45 PM EST)